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Biblical & Christian perspectives - (Put together from several sources.)

Jerusalem is the main City of the Land of Israel, but sometimes it represents all Israel. In Scripture, (i.e. the Holy Bible of the Tanakh/O.T. & N.T), it is also called ‘Zion’, representing its more spiritual meaning. [See study on ‘Biblical Zion’.]
B.C.E. means 'Before the Common Era' and is the Jewish name for a time period of perhaps 4 thousand years, usually called 'B.C.' meaning 'Before Christ'.
'C.E.' means the 'The Common Era' but usually called 'A.D.' (Anno Domini.)



First mention of Jerusalem in historic records. Babel & Damascus also.


The first reference to this Place in the Bible is when Abraham rescues Lot and worships with Melchizedek, king of ‘Salem’. (Genesis chapter 14: esp. 18-20.)


Abraham and Isaac on Mt. Moriah, central rock Mountain in the area. (Gen. 22.) This is now called the ‘Temple Mount’, still sacred to Jewish people.


Approximate date for life & times of Moses, when Isra’el becomes a Nation.


Various dates for the Exodus & journey to ‘Promised Land’ (Exodus – Deut.)

c. 1350

Jerusalem recorded in Tell el-Amarna historical tablets. (Exodus from Egypt.)


Isra’el as a nation is established in their God given, miraculously claimed Land, also called the Land of Promise. (Joshua 1 & 11:21-23.) [Alt. Date 1400?NIV]


Joshua fights a battle against king of ‘Shalem’. (Joshua chapter 10.)


All Scripture vindicates the truth that this city, Jerusalem, was chosen by Israel’s God, as the Place He required them to claim & go to, in order to worship Him, ADONAI. (Deuteronomy 12: 5 – 8.Psalm 48, 1 Kings 3: 15).


Tribe of Judah conquers Jerusalem, but did not take possession. (Joshua 15.)


King David captures Jerusalem from the Jebusites, calling it 'City of David'. As Israel's second, but God ordained King over Israel, (7 years before), David then reigned from Jerusalem, also called ‘Zion’, for 33 years. It therefore became the Capital City of the Kingdom of Israel, which included all 12 tribes, and extended to almost all of the Land promised to the Nation of Israelites. (2 Samuel 5:1-9.)


Solomon builds the Temple on the site ordained by God, and bought by David. This was the first glorious Temple on the ‘Temple Mount’. 1 Kings 7+8.


Division of the kingdom; Jerusalem capital of the Southern Kingdom called 'Judah', but including 4 tribes, (Judah, Benjamin, part of Simeon, and many Levites). Also many people from the Northern Kingdom relocated to Jerusalem. 2 Chronicles 11: 13+14, 15: 9, ch. 30, Psalm 80:1 +2. King Rehoboam first of the line of kings ruling from Jerusalem over ‘Judah’.


Shishak king of Egypt captures the city from King Rehoboam.

721 –713

Senacherib, king of Assyria conquers the Land then lays siege to Jerusalem. (2 Chron.32), but in answer to Isaiah’s  & Hezekiah’s prayers, God dealt to him!

715 – 686

Jewish King Hezekiah enlarges the city (as many from tribes from North Kingdom entered), especially when invited to celebrate the Passover – 1st time for 50 years. He also brings water via a tunnel into the City, but sadly his spiritual reforms and those of Josiah did not last, tho’ Prophets warned often.


Nebuchadnezer, who became King of Babylon, & created the ‘Neo-Babylon kingdom (605) captures and destroys the City and Temple. Many 'Hebrews', now called Jews, taken into Exile, in 3 stages. Ezekiel [c580] prophesied from Babylon, about Jerusalem & also Daniel [510-516?] after reading Jeremiah’s prophecy, (ch. 9,) prayed & fasted for its restoration (ch.10). The story of Esther [486 -465] & deliverance from national genocide is remembered since, at ‘Purim’. The Synagogue became centre of worship.

539 528

Jews (and other tribes of Israel) return from Exile to the City under Priest Ezra, by sanction of God appointed (foretold by Isaiah 41:2 + 25), Persian king, Cyrus the Great (559 –530), who took over Babylon. Ezra ch.1.


City reoccupied by Jews, though still under Darius, and second Temple built, on the Temple Mount, though much plainer than the first Temple.


Nehemiah rebuilds Jerusalem and its walls (around a smaller city.) Ch’s 3-6.


Jerusalem captured and ruled by the Persians, again.


Most of then known world conquered by Alexander 'The Great' who visited Jerusalem, and made 'common Greek' the language of trade and use for all.

312 - 250

Egyptian General, Ptolomy 1 ruled part of Greek Empire from Jerusalem. The Torah (1st 5 books of the Tanakh) translated into Greek, by Jewish elders. Later – 90 BCE, By the ‘Academy of Yavneh’, under Jewish founder Johanna ben Zakkai, The official ‘Cannon’ [limited & sanctioned books in the Tanakh] was established, & the 3rd & final section of the Tanakh was completed in Greek, by 70 Jewish scholars. It became known as the ‘Septuagint’, & thereby vindicates further careful, and totally accurate translations of Scripture, since. This translation into Greek was 1st of many.


The Syrian ‘Seleucids’ who had also gained territory after Greece & assimilated the nation, under their control to 142BCE, In Daniel 8, he foretold this would happen.


The 4th Syrian dictator, Antiochus Epiphanes, ruled cruelly over Judea killing Jews - especially those who would not forsake a true Biblical Faith of Judaism for 3.5 years. He stripped & desecrated the Temple, by placing an idol there & sacrificing a pig to it. This brought about the ‘Maccabean Revolt of 167 –165.  


25th of Kislev, Judas Maccabeus’ army recaptured the city and rededicated the Temple. The Jews in the festival of ‘Hanukkah’ remember this.

142 - 129

A time of Autonomy for Jewish people, control over Jerusalem, but under ‘Hasmonean’ rule – descendants of the Maccabees, who usurped roles of king & High Priest, not being of the true, Aaronic priestly line. [Inc. Annas & Caiphas of N.T. times.] They were wealthy & supported by the Sadducees.


Roman under Commander Pompey enters Jerusalem & takes over the City for Rome. It was regarded as a minor, if troublesome, Roman province.


Herod the great, calling himself a Jew took over the City under the Romans. His 4 sons later bought areas of the Land. Herod Antipas was the one who killed John the Baptist, and to whom Jesus was sent during His trial. They were 'Idumeans', descendants of the Edomites, who fled to the Negev & adopted Judaism, but he was a hated ruler by the true Jewish people. He took on huge building projects, and did a 'makeover' of the Temple, 20BC-46AD-N.T.times... [It was admired later, by Yeshua’s Disciples, Matthew 24: 1]



The events of the New Testament fit in here. Herod the Great’s 3 sons rule Israel.
Date of Yeshua/ Jesus’ birth.
[Taken from notes by Daniel Doubleday.]
Matthew & Luke indicate that Jesus would be born 6 months after John, Son of Zechariah. Luke establishes that it was during the Governorship of Syria, by Quirinius, 5-4 BC. Because John refers to the fact that Jesus ‘tabernacled among us’ & the date of the Feast of Tabernacles that year was September 29th, it gives a probable date for His birth. The last day of the Feast was his 8th day, when He was circumcised, 7th October 4 BC. It was not during winter, but the actual conception (when in fact as the Divine Son of God He came to Earth) was probably near to 25th December of 5BC, so Believers can truly rejoice in that. (At Creation, as the sun was given on the 4th day, perhaps there’s a link to the 4,000th year?) Other studies show unusual activities in the Heavens, then, too.

So Jesus probably lived from 4 BC to about 28 AD. All of the events of the Gospels and Acts were within the years up to about 60 AD. The early Church was mainly Jewish and had spread with persecution, good Roman roads, and the use of the common Greek language to most of the Middle East, and to Rome. Many Gentiles also became Believers, called ‘Christians’ being the Greek form of the Hebrew word, ‘Meshiach’, meaning a Follower of the Messiah, the Anointed One, known as ‘Jesus of Nazareth’.

But the Leaders of the religious Jews, following the destruction of the Temple *decreed the separation of the Jewish Believers so excommunicating them. (‘Council at Yavneh’.) Israel was still populated mainly by Jews, with other nationalities, but all under Roman rule. The Jewish Sanhedrin, (religious leaders) was dissolved some 300 years later.


The Jewish uprising against the Romans by the 'Zealots'. Nero in Rome 54-68. The tragic events foretold by Zechariah [13: 8 & 9] were fulfilled then.


(9th Av.) Titus conquers Jerusalem, destroys the Temple*, & thousands of Jews were killed-or Exiled, leaving a small minority, as in Zech.13: 8. Christians (Gentile) & Messianic Jews were greatly persecuted. [Fall of Masada Zealots, AD 73]


Roman Hadrian rebuilds and renames Jerusalem, to divorce it from Jewish Association, calling it Aelia Capitolina. ('The Cardo' in Jerusalem is from then.)


Romans again put down a Jewish uprising, renaming the whole area Palestina. There were always Jews + many nationalities there, but few Arabs.


Constantine of Rome makes his empire become 'Christian'.


City under Byzantine (Eastern Roman Christian) rule, (worldwide 330-1453.)


Jerusalem came under Persian rule, but still a small neglected city.


City again under Byzantine rule, some big churches date back to these times.

A sad new era for the world- a strategy of Satan now began with the life of Muhammad who began the religion of Islam first in Medina, in Arabia among Arabs in 622. AD. [CE].
He died in 632 leaving a religion of cruelty and complete submission to an Arab god called Allah, (one of many), called 'the moon god' hence the symbol of the crescent moon as symbol of Islam. Muhammad’s visions & words were complied as the Quaran. 
>> Between 632 and 732 Arab armies commanded by Abu Bakr conquered the entire Middle East, enforcing the study of the Quaran/Koran in Arabic and debasing women & non-Muslims greatly. Thousands of people died in the vicious wars.
They then swept across North Africa, occupied Spain and were finally stopped by Charles Martel at the battle of Poitiers, in the Balkans. (Later Yugoslavia-now Serbia & Croatia, etc. Recent wars were virtually 'Christian' Serbs under Melosovich, versus 'Muslim' Serbs', were also very cruel, as were the Crusades of the 11th century.)
In the Middle East, Jews and Arab continued to live in the area still called 'Palestine'.

Different ETHNIC groups. It is important to know the ethnic names of groups of people in the M.E.of which there are many, such as Persians, Kurds, Druze, Egyptians and Bedouin. The best-known groups are Jews and Arabs. Jews are those who can reliably trace their family name, customs and background as being from the 12 tribes represented in Temple documents etc, around 60 A.D. and are ethnically born Jewish. The other large group is the Arabs, descended from ancient tribes, who in Biblical times had different names according to the sons of Ishmael, to whom God made specific promises. (Gen.16: 10 & 21:13.) After this they are mentioned rarely in the Bible times. See Genesis 25: 12 –16.

There are also various religious groups, which may or may not be common among the ethnic groups. So Judaism is the main religion of the Jewish people, and Islam is the main religion of the Arabs since the time of Muhammad, (c 636A.D.) Whatever their religion a Jew is still called a Jew, though they may be a Christian Jew, or even Secular Jew, etc. Anyone however, (Indian, English, African) who has Islam as their religion is called a Muslim. Most Arabs at present are Muslims, but not all. There are two main 'denominations' of Islam, Sunni and Shi’ite, spread right across the Middle East, & the world  - over 1 billion as in Pakistan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Bangladesh etc. So all Muslims are not Arabs.

Biblical Judaism, we believe, was given by God especially from the time of Moses around 1300 B.C. (Modern Judaism is different.) Islam only commenced, around 633 in Arabia.

There is NO relationship between today's Arabs (living in the Palestinian area & beyond), and the Philistines of the Bible. The Philistines were a different ethnic group, which died out many centuries ago. The only likeness is their similar hatred of the Jewish people.


Omar Ibn Al-Khattab put Jerusalem under Islamic rule making Jews subservient. Dhimini – meaning lesser citizens & treated as such by Islam.


Abd al-Malik builds the Dome of the Rock, (‘Mosque of Omar’), on the Temple Mount, 80 years after Muhammad's death. Al Aksar mosque built later there. From this time on the story of Jerusalem is tragic as Muslims and ‘Christians’ abused it. [Yet we believe God allowed these events.]



Turks capture Jerusalem.


Crusaders capture Jerusalem - great cruelty to Muslims and Jews.


Saladin captures Jerusalem and renews Jewish settlement in the City.


300 English and French Rabbis settle in Jerusalem. But more wars happen...


City conquered by the Turkish Sultan, Selim.


Sultan Suleiman 'the magnificent' builds walls around Jerusalem - as still seen. This area, ‘The Old City’ is divided between Jews, Arabs  & Christians.


Earthquake in the city.


Napoleon tries and fails to take the land of Israel. (Still called Palestine.)

From the early 1800's along with the expansion of the British and other Empires, came a new Biblically based concern by evangelical Christians to see the Jews return to 'Palestine' and the restoration of the Land to the Jews. Therefore the London Jews Society was formed to channel money and help to the Jewish population in Yeshua's Name Inspite of huge opposition from the Turks and the Orthodox churches, a hospital, schools, and suitable work (income) was established for the Jewish people, some of whom became Believers in Jesus/ Yeshua. This also inspired wealthy Jews to take more interest in Jews welfare, like Sir Moses Montefiore. (1827) The City expanded beyond the walls of Old City.
The first (Protestant) evangelical church was built and opened in Jerusalem in 1845.
It was built like a church but used Hebrew wording and Jewish symbols in it, like a Synagogue. It was called 'Christ church' -or in Hebrew 'Kelihah Meshiach'. It still stands, & has a Bookshop, Museum cum coffee shop, Hotel & a tourism service. The first bishop was a Jewish Christian, Alexander Solomon, and New Zealand's first C.E. Bishop, Selwyn, was present at his ordination, on his way to N.Z. The Church has blessed many people, thru wars & troubles of all kinds. Its closeness to the Temple Mount is special.


Jerusalem again under Turkish rule. But Christian work blessed many Arabs.


First Protestant, evangelical Church built in the 'Old City' (part) of Jerusalem.


Moses Montefiore led Jewish improvements, like a flourmill, Jewish Hospital, schools, etc and new suburbs for Jews, like 'Mea Shearim' for Orthodox Jews.


Theodor Hetzl with help from Rev Heckler arranged the first ZIONIST CONGRESS to consider making Palestine a home for Jews. 50 years later it became a reality. But significant events came in between like W.W.I...


British Army, (including ANZACS) reclaimed Jerusalem, under General Allenby, a Christian Bible reader, who dismounted as he entered Jerusalem.


British given 'Mandate' over Palestine and large M.E. area by League of Nations, but a lot of unrest by the Arabs, and Jews followed. Land use better.


A 6.25 scale Earthquake on both sides of the Jordan River caused death & damage - giving concern in the 21st C of another, similar event. [The N.T, foretells a future earthquake destroying 1/10th City, 7,000 will die.].


W.W.II killed 55 million people, 6 million of them Jews in Holocaust in Germany. Many Jews had already gone to Palestine and formed the Kibbutzim. Many see this as a significant time in the re-establishment of Israel as the prophets foretold. The Hebrew language was revived and many Zionist Jews returned to the Land, although there was never a time when Jews did not live there. Many prophetic Scriptures described this time centuries before


New United Nations Organisation, voted on the 'partition' of Palestine.


14th May, Israel declared themselves as a new independent Nation.


War by 5 adjacent Arab nations against Israel, when many Arabs left and the Palestinian refugee problem began, because Arab nations would not help them. But many Jews from round the world made ‘aliya’ to live in Israel.


A second war declared by the Arabs, but miraculously won by Israel.


Israel responded to huge build up of armies of Arabs. In 6 days Israel won and Jerusalem was recaptured from Jordan and on 28th unified under Israeli control. Israel allowed The Muslim Waqf to continue control of Temple Mt.


Sudden war by 5 Arab nations started on 'Yom Kippur'. (October) Israel victorious but at huge cost of men and money. (Worldwide fear of 'W.W.III'). USA helped early, but Britain at first was unco-operative, unwilling to allow supplies to go through to Israel. Russia pulled back when USA threatened it seriously. Israel reclaimed all of Sinai, (later returned –Egypt) who made peace with Israel, under President Sadat who later was killed by radicals.


Jerusalem officially declared "the eternal capital of the Jewish nation" July 30.


First 'Intefada' war in the Palestinian area. More difficult that all out war.


'Gulf War'- When a major response by many nations was against Iraq under Saddam Hussein who had invaded Kuwait. Israel held back inspite of 39 Scud (bombs) from Iraq -none causing loss of life, and minimal damage really. Population of Israel growing by 'aliya', (immigration) to almost 6 million. 25th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem, under Jewish control.


Attempt by USA & Norway to arrange a peace treaty between the Palestinians under Yasser Arafat & Israel's P.M. Iztac Rabin, called the 'Oslo Peace Accords.' Sadly the conditions were never met, especially by the Arabs and suicide bombings became an agonising experience of many innocent Israelis. Religious Jews aggressively built new cities & suburbs in 'Palestinian' lands, not waiting for God to act, and causing much sorrow to innocent Palestinians, many of whom, (especially Christians) left to go to other places. Despite difficulties, numbers of Jewish Believers increased & 'congregations'.


Celebration of the 3000th year of the 'City of David'- Jerusalem.


Palestinian terrorist groups, under Yasser Arafat began a new wave of horrific terrorist activities, eliciting a strong response from Israel under P.M Arial Sharon. The targeted killings of leaders of Hamas, etc, and destruction of Arafat's H.Q. closure of entrances into Israel with road blocks, banning of workers from entering Israel to work and growth of Israeli settlements have caused much sorrow to all involved. This has brought many suggested remedies from many other nations. Many on both sides suffered & died.


The Arab League of 22 nations proposed a solution to the impasse between Israel & the Palestinians, but making requirements, Israel could not accept.*


A concerted effort to present a solution to the critical situation was made by the USA, UNO, Russia & the E.U. called the 'Road Map to Peace'. A promise of a Palestinian State alongside a Jewish State was proposed, and signed June 30th by representatives of USA, the Palestinians and Israel. The Palestinians have not kept any of their commitments, and Israel has progressed with the controversial building of a safety fence to try to hold back the persistent terrorists from entering Israel. This has been effective where it was built. Israel has developed a number of scientific & medical advances. It has several spy satellites, & the economy has grown very fast.


Israel made a controversial decision to remove some 8,000 Jewish residents from carefully built towns in the Gaza Strip, to allow the Arab population to control their own area, [even giving them productive agricultural & horticultural Glass houses – which they promptly looted & destroyed.] Israel controlled the border crossings but weapons poured in.


USA & others demanded that ‘democratic’ elections for a Palestinian Gov’t should be held. Western nations were dismayed when the avowed anti-Israel, terrorist ‘Hamas’ party won. Aid money was withdrawn as a result. Due to the kidnapping of 2 Israeli soldiers by the Hizballah Terrorist army in Lebanon, a war broke out between them & Israel, lasting 6 weeks, & causing great damage on both sides. The UNO & USA put great pressure to end the war, with no helpful results, but showing alliances between Iran, Syria, the Hizballah against Israel. The Palestinians were divided between the seemingly more moderate ‘Fatah’ party & the radical ‘Hamas’.


Ongoing mayhem in the Gaza area, resulted in May with the Hamas brutally taking over the Gaza Strip, & driving the Fatah party to form a separate Government in the ‘West Bank’ [Judea & Samaria] area.

This has caused great distress to all concerned, with several previously formed groups, such as ‘the Quartet’ of the UNO, EU, USA & Russia attempting many solutions, especially ‘two separate nations, living in peace; Israel & a potential ‘Palestinian State’. The Arab League, with some members, such as Saudi Arabia, Egypt & Jordan have also attempted to bring forward the 2002 proposal. * There are 3 central contentious points - before ‘peace’ can be considered. Withdrawal of Israel to the 1967 borders, the return of Arabs who left Israel in 1948, and the giving of East Jerusalem to the Palestinians to be called ‘their Capital’. Other concessions have been asked for by Israel & are being made. Threats of more potential wars, either with ‘Hamas’ & their supporters (Iran) & on the Northern border either with Hizballah in Lebanon, or with Syria, are ongoing. As Believers in the entire Bible, this web site sees further fulfillments of the words & warnings of the Prophets of the Tanakh happening soon. The Sovereign El Shaddai, ADONAI will continue HIS PLANS…

Jerusalem is God's City and we rejoice that
He has good plans for it and all those who trust in & love Him,
 whatever their ethnic origins, they are His people!
God’s specific word to ISRA’EL is in Jeremiah 29: 11.
“ ‘For I know the plans I have for you’, declares ADONAI,
‘Plans to prosper you & not to harm you,
Plans to give you hope & a future.
Then you will call upon Me & come & pray to Me, & I will listen to you.
You will seek Me & find Me when you seek Me with all your heart.
I will be found by you’, declares the LORD.”


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